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10 de jun de 2009

Antecedentes da Primeira Guerra


A Primeira Grande Guerra (1914-18) foi responsável pela morte de milhões de pessoas na Europa e provocou uma transformação significativa nas correlações de força entre os países industrializados.

FATORES
Normalmente são apresentados três fatores mais importantes responsáveis pela guerra: A Política Imperialista sobre as áreas de colonização, a Questão Balcânica e o Revanchismo Francês; Mesmo esses dois últimos somente podem ser entendidos no contexto da expansão capitalista, portanto a Primeira Guerra foi na verdade uma guerra imperialista que envolveu os grandes interesses de potências industrializadas

O IMPERIALISMO

O final do século XIX, principalmente após a Conferência de Berlim (1885), foi caracterizado pela corrida armamentista. Nesse período, conhecido por "Paz Armada", várias nações instituíram o serviço militar obrigatório e os exércitos passaram a ter maior influência na vida política. Esse processo deveu-se ao desenvolvimento do capitalismo monopolista e do neocolonialismo, que caracterizam o imperialismo. As grandes potências industriais adotaram a política expansionista para garantir o controle sobre os mercados afro-asiáticos, a partir da concepção de que o desenvolvimento industrial da cada nação somente seria possível na medida em que houvesse o controle sobre grandes mercados.Essa mentalidade imperialista foi responsável não só pelo militarismo, como também por maior exaltação nacionalista.

O NACIONALISMO
O nacionalismo desenvolveu-se desigualmente nos países imperialista, fruto das condições anteriores ao imperialismo. Tradicionalmente considera-se a Alemanha como a maior expressão de nacionalismo, na verdade, muito mais pelos desdobramentos que essa mentalidade teve durante a Segunda guerra, do que pela sua real importância no final do século XIX.
Na Itália o sentimento nacionalista esteve presente nas duas grandes revoluções do século XIX ( em 1830 e 1848) e novamente no processo de unificação.
Na França o nacionalismo esteve presente na Revolução Francesa, manifestado principalmente no ideal de â??fraternidade"; se bem que a revolução agudizou a luta de classes, enquanto na Alemanha e na Itália, as unificações baseadas no discurso nacionalista cumpriu o papel inverso, encobrir as desigualdades, característica fundamental do nacionalismo.
Mesmo nos EUA, onde não existe o nacionalismo clássico, este encontrou seu equivalente na Teoria do Destino Manifesto, de origem calvinista, que serviu como justificativa ideológica para o expansionismo ao longo do século XIX e para a formação de sua política intervencionista conhecida por "Big Stick".

A QUESTÃO BALCÂNICA

Desde o final do século XIX, com a decadência do Império Turco e o processo de independência dos povos da região balcânica, é que esse território tornou-se alvo de múltiplos interesses. A Áustria pretendia ampliar sua influência sobre a região e iniciar um processo de expansão. A mesma política foi desenvolvida pelos russos, que utilizaram o argumento "pan-eslavista", e haviam ainda os interesses peculiares à própria região, em especial o dos sérvios, que pretendiam construir a "Grande Sérvia".

O REVANCHISMO
O revanchismo francês desenvolveu-se após a humilhação de 1871, quando da proclamação do II Reich Alemão no Palácio de Versalhes. Nas casas e escolas as crianças francesas foram estimuladas a exaltar o patriotismo e a aceitar o sacrifício pelo seu país. Na verdade esse revanchismo ( a palavra tem sentido negativo) não deixa de ser uma manifestação nacionalista ( palavra que normalmente tem sentido positivo) que desenvolveu-se ao mesmo tempo em que as estruturas políticas do país foram se tornando mais liberais, possibilitando maior participação, estimulando o senso crítico e a noção de cidadania, portanto situação contrária vivida pela Alemanha, onde o nacionalismo seguiu a orientação de um estado centralizado e forte.

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